Japanese language is one of the most difficult languages in the world to learn and comprehend. It is used by more than 130 million people in the world in Japan and about 5 million outside it. Despite the widespread belief that Japanese is associated with Chinese, this is not true! It was shown that the Japanese and Chinese have no “genetic” proximity.
Until now, scientists have not been able to figure out where this language actually came from. Because there is no real evidence linking the Japanese language with any of the world language families. Nevertheless, the most probable hypothesis put forward so far unites the Japanese with the Altai family. This family includes Turks, Mongols, Koreans and other languages.
About Spelling in Japanese
Currently, there are two types of spelling in Japanese – hiragana and katakana. The original writing dates back to the 5th century and is largely inspired by the Chinese language. The original Chinese characters were greatly simplified and in the period between the 9th and 10th centuries endowed with a phonetic function, that is, associated with some Japanese syllables.
Religious and diplomatic relations with Korea and China in the 6th-9th centuries led to the adoption of the Japanese writing system in Japanese. The influence of the Chinese language is still felt today. So about 40% of the words in modern Japanese are borrowed from Chinese. Since the mid-18th century, the Japanese have acquired a large number of foreign words, most of which are English.
For example, “teburu” from the English “table” or “hoteru” from the English “hotel”. There are also borrowings from Spanish and Portuguese that appeared during the arrival of missionaries and merchants from Europe to Japan.
About the History of the Japanese Language
The geography of the country, that is, high peaks, deep valleys and small isolated islands, contributed to the diversity of dialects, and users of different dialects often do not understand each other.
For example, people who speak the northern dialect cannot communicate with people living near Tokyo or people living in the western region of Japan. Since 1886, schools have taught standard writing. Nowadays, people who are much more mobile and make extensive use of the media and social networks, the great differences between the dialects have been leveled.
The Japanese version of the Latin alphabet is called Romaji. There are several transcription patterns from khans to the Latin alphabet. The most famous of these is Hepburn transcription. It was originally created to create an English-Japanese dictionary. There are also transcriptions of Cyrillic and other writing systems.
In Japanese, there are only two grammatical tenses:
- present future
Nouns lack grammatical categories of number, person, gender.
- the predicate is always at the end of the sentence after the subject, additions and circumstances, the compound nominal predicate is formed using the connective desu in second place (gakusei desu);
In Japanese, unlike the Russian language, nouns do not have grammatical categories of gender and number.
Japanese Writing Examples
For example, in Russian or English we say: “student”; “schoolgirl”; “students”
In Japanese, these words are expressed in one – 生 徒 – せ い と
And the word: “teacher”, “teachers” are designated by one word – 先生 – せ ん せ い
Similarly, 1 word:
牛 – う し – translates as: cow, bull, cows, bulls
林檎 – り ん ご – translates as: apple, apples
本 – ほ ん – translates as: book, books, and so on …